The Deformed Roof House of Furano
홋카이도 지방의 민가 특색을 보여주는 비정형 지붕 주택
Yoshichika Takagi + associates | 요시치카 타카기 어쏘시에이츠
This project is involved in renovating a house built in 1974 to make a family residence. Its current figure is a result of having gone through two rounds of extensions and reconstructions. Houses such as these, which are colloquially called “Deformed Roof” houses for their asymmetrical shape, are a regular sight unique to Hokkaido – but is difficult to call them beautiful. It could be described as a vernacular yet anonymous kind of design.
Project: The Deformed Roof House of Furano / Location: Furano, Hokkaido, Japan / Architect: Yoshichika Takagi + associates – Yoshichika Takagi / Construction: Daisuke Hasegawa (Daisuke Hasegawa & Partners) / Use: residential / Building area: 96.47m2 / Total floor area: 203.28m2 / Structure: wooden / Completion: 2019 / Photograph: Ikuya Sasaki
Looking back on the modern history of “Minka” (local houses) in Hokkaido, the “Triangular Roof” style was established in the period between the 1950s and 1960s, followed by the period of “Deformed Roof” houses, which lasted for about 10 years into the 1970s. When researching the reasons behind the stylistic change, it was possible to assume certain facts through circumstantial evidence, but the architects found it impossible to reach the most important point, which was the motive.
일본어로 개인 민가를 뜻하는 ‘민카’의 홋카이도 지방 양식은 50년대와 60년대에 ‘삼각 지붕’ 구조를 보였으나, 70년대에 들어 ‘변형된 지붕’으로 바뀌었다. 양식이 변화한 요인과 관련해 여러 가지 가설이 있지만, 아직 정확한 이유를 아는 사람은 없다.
이는 변형을 시도하며 고전 법칙에 도전한 매너리즘 양식과 비슷하다. 시대 흐름에 따라 기존 양식을 깨는 새로운 스타일이 등장하듯, 삼각 지붕에 이어 비대칭을 이룬 지붕 주택이 등장한 과정 역시 자연스러운 건축 사조의 흐름으로 이해하면 된다.
Considered from a different point of view, such as that of human history, the style could be described as a “mannerism”, which is defined as a divergence from the legitimate style. Like the change of architectural style, considering the “Deformed Roof” style in the context of the preceding “Triangular Roof” houses made its appearance less inexplicable.
The base of the architectural plan for this residence therefore, was to pass this “Deformed Roof” house, which could be called a conceit in Hokkaido “Minka” history, down to the next generation.
1층은 부모가, 2층은 아이가 생활할 공간으로 단장하고, 증축 공사도 함께 진행했다. 그 과정에서 단열 문제를 개선하고 구조를 보강하기 위해 구조 프레임을 해체하고, 일본 단위로 1간에 해당하는 1.82m 너비의 공간을 집 앞쪽으로 넓혔다.
2층으로 올라가는 계단을 설치한 증축 공간은 온실 겸 텃밭, 테라스로 활용하는 동시에 바람을 막는 기능을 한다. 수직 기둥만으로 풍압을 견디게끔 설계한 구조 덕분이다. 게다가 일본 전통 건축에서 바닥에 흙을 깔아 실외처럼 사용하는 ‘도마’ 공간으로 꾸며 집안일과 일상생활을 겸할 수도 있다. 외피는 투명 폴리카보네이트 골판지로 덮어 목재 구조와 공간이 드러나도록 했다.
The house was renovated so that the parent household would be on the first floor and the child household on the second floor, with the addition of an extension to fulfill the necessary requirement of rooms. Since insulation improvement and structural reinforcement was also required, the house was disassembled to its structural frames, and was extended for one “ken” (a Japanese unit, one ken being 1,820mm) on the gable end, tracing the form of the deformed roof.
The extended part softly connects the parent household and child household, and also functions as a shared unit of an agricultural/greenhouse-like nature, possessing features of a terrace, windbreak room, and an all access area. It is also a “doma” (dirt floor), which is essential for farming households in Japan, as well as a cross-functional space for working and living.
기존 건물에 새로운 공간을 덧붙인 비정형 지붕이 한층 돋보이는 집, 이것이 홋카이도 민가 변천사에서 변형된 지붕 구조를 대표할 또 하나의 양식으로 기록될 것이다.
In the structure of the extension, a pillar, placed at one ken away from the existing outline, resists the wind pressure along the longitudinal pillar, meaning that the horizontal member could be excluded. By layering the plan to the decided construction design, a misalignment arose in the terrace and opening, which led to the appearance of an upgraded “manneristic” dimension.